Vitis labrusca leaf infected with Xylella fastidiosa. Left image is a scanning electron microscope image superimposed with a silicon (Si)-rich area map (green/yellow/red), and the right image is a 3D Si-rich signal intensity map. Leaf scorch lesion surrounded by healthy tissue (blue/white). 3-D map is slighted tilted.
Breno LeiteThermo Fisher Scientific-X-Ray MicroanalysisEmail: email@example.com
Pierce’s disease (PD) is caused by the pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa and has resulted in serious losses for the multi- million dollar grape and wine industry in California. Similar problems are also a concern for the state of Florida. The disease remains incurable. European grapes (Vitis vinifera) are the most susceptible to PD. American varieties such as Vitis labrusca grapevines are also susceptible, contrasting with Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia), which are highly tolerant to the disease. Mechanisms of host resistance are not fully understood. The image above shows a typical V. labrusca scorched lesion area that was mapped using modernized high-throughput energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) coupled with scanning electron microscopy. Images show a typical leaf scorch area accumulating silicon (Si). The lesion is surrounded by healthy tissue exhibiting normal levels of Si. Si accumulation is probably a plant strategy to cope with the reduction in water flow as a consequence of vessel occlusion due to bacterial multiplication (Leite, B., and Andersen, P. C. 2009. Microsc. Microanal. 15 (2):918-19). These findings encourage discussions concerning the importance of Si as an element involved in stress-related responses and emphasizes the impact of the new generation of EDS detectors. These detectors are able to produce massive amounts of X- rays and help to reveal fine details of the plant response to a pathogen.
APS publication number: IW000116
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