Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco) with symptoms of yellow shootand citrus greening, caused by Candidatus Linberobacter asiaticum,which is vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri.
Photograph courtesy Tim R. Gottwald and Steve M. GarnseyUSDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory2120 Camden Road, Orlando, FL 32803
Top panel: Naturally infected young Ponkan mandarin tree in Taiwan with "yellow shoot"symptoms.Bottom left panel: Satsuma mandarin fruit in Taiwan with the nonuniform coloration typical of "greening."Bottom right panel: Diaphorina citri, the Asian citrus psyllid. Photo by B. Aubert.
Background: Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also commonly called "citrus greening," is one of the most serious diseases of citrus and has severely affected production of all types of citrus in many areas of Asia. The causal agent of HLB is a phloem-limited bacterium, Liberobacter asiaticum, which has never been successfully cultured. HLB severely affects phloem function and tree health. Initial symptoms of chlorosis and leaf mottling often first appear on one shoot or limb and gave rise to the Chinese name, huanglongbing, meaning "yellow shoot." As the disease progresses, trees turn chlorotic, develop twig dieback, and rapidly decline to a nonproductive state. Fruit on diseased trees is small, frequently misshapen, and fails to color uniformly as it ripens. This symptom is responsible for the other common name, "greening." A distinct form of HLB is found in Africa, and the causal agent, L. africanum, has a lower optimum temperature for expression. The HLB agent is spread by propagation and by two citrus psyllids. Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is the primary vector for the Asian form of HLB and Trioza erytreae is the primary vector for the African form, but both can vector either agent. Introduction of infected plants has triggered HLB epidemics in several countries, and once well established, it is difficult to control. Nearly all orange, mandarin, and grapefruit cultivars are severely affected by HLB, and control measures are limited to the use of disease-free propagating stock, roguing of infected trees, and chemical or biological control of the vectors. While the HLB agent has not been found as yet in the Western Hemisphere, D. citri was introduced into Brazil in the early 1980s and was found in Del Ray Beach, Florida, on 2 June 1998 by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Presence of the vector in the United States raises concerns that any unrecognized introduction of HLB-infected citrus in the past and any future introduction of the pathogen could lead to spread of the disease by a vector now in place. An ongoing USDA, ARS-supported research program on exotic citrus diseases is designed to address concerns about HLB and other exotic pathogens and includes development and evaluation of diagnostic, survey, and control methods.
APS publication number: IW00006
Picture your photograph as the APS Featured
Click here to find out more
License to Copy. This
notice hereby grants permission to APS users to copy the image featured for
noncommercial, personal use. All components of APSnet are copyrighted and may
not be reproduced or distributed except by express permission of APS. Copyright
is not claimed for material provided by United States government employees as
part of their work. APS copyright extends to images, text, graphics,
photographs, illustrations, audio, video, computer software, and all other
elements of the site.Instructions to Copy. For PC, position your mouse
cursor on the featured image, click the right mouse button, and choose "Save
Picture As..." or "Save this Image as..." whichever is the case. For Mac, click
the only mouse button and follow the same steps. Users may want to set up a
specific directory and file naming scheme for storing images; otherwise, they
will be saved using your system defaults. Images may be used in any software
application that supports JPEG file format or viewed in an Internet browser as