2017 APS Annual Meeting Special Sessions
Special session titles are listed alphabetically and linked to session descriptions, below. (Content as listed is subject to change)
17th I. E. Melhus Graduate Student Symposium: Today's Students Addressing Tomorrows Challenges Concerning Plant Diseases and Phytobiomes
Organizers: Forrest Nutter, Jr., Iowa State University, Ames, IA; Pierce Paul, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Epidemiology Committee, Crop Loss and Risk Evaluation Committee
A Bridge over Troubled Ecosystems: How Host Cultivation Creates Novel Path
Organizers: Jason Smith, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Denita Hadziabdic, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
Sponsoring Committee/Sponsor: Forest Pathology Committee
Rapidly changing forested systems, facilitated by land use change, plantation and clonal forestry, and genetic selection, have brought together pathogen species that lead to the emergence of novel pathosystems. The diseases resulting from these new pathosystems threaten entire natural communities and local economies and constitute a major component of the changing landscape of tree pathology.
Adapt, Change, and Improvise: How to Control Diseases as the Climate Is Changing
Organizers: Johanna Del Castillo Múnera, University of Maryland, College Park, MD; Cassandra Swett, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Soil Microbiology and Root Diseases Committee, Crop Loss Assessment and Risk Evaluation Committee
Extreme and unpredictable weather conditions are a number one grower challenge to disease control, and many questions are emerging. Are forecasting models still going to be useful? How are water recycling and deficit irrigation affecting disease? How are the extreme heat and cold events influencing pathogen virulence and host susceptibility? What are effects on beneficial symbionts? And perhaps most importantly, how can we effectively use outreach to help growers adapt?
Addressing Nematode Parasitic Tactics Through Biology
Organizers: Rachel Medina, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH; Qianwei Jiang, Monsanto Vegetable Seeds, Felda, FL
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Nematology Committee, Soil Microbiology and Root Diseases Committee
Financial Sponsor: Monsanto
The Nematology Committee proposes to bring in experts in the field of effector biology to update the plant pathology community on the new understandings of nematode parasitic tactics for the 2017 APS Annual Meeting. This session will discuss topics ranging from basic effector biology to innovative nematode management strategies. Prestigious female scientists make up half of our list of speakers for their dedication and expertise to the field of nematology. The plan for the 2018 meeting that will complement this session with a focus on the applied, with a potential workshop on nematode identification, and speakers to convey progress made in nematode management and their global impact. We are also connecting with the Soil Microbiology and Root Diseases Committee for this special session to include nematologists related to the phytobiome with researchers studying soil webs and ecosystems.
An Ever-changing Extension Environment: Keeping a Foot in the Furrow and a Hand in Cyberspace
Organizers: Tom Allen, Mississippi State University, Stoneville, MS; Daren Mueller, Iowa State University, Ames, IA
Sponsoring Committee/Sponsor: Extension Committee
Yue (Helen) Teng, U.S. Food &Drug Administration, U.S.A.
Content regarding the sociology between trust within the agricultural Extension service, as well as impact required to continue funding for Extension, and the use of social media to provide information between Extension and the agricultural community will be discussed/presented. Content will cover how the Extension service is succeeding as using new forms of media to deliver their message to the agricultural community. A speaker who has a perspective on the sociology of trust with the agricultural community, one who deals with lobbying for APS and how we are received within the legislative community in Washington, and a third speaker deals with social media and extending the content provided by southern Extension to the agricultural community as a whole will deliver a broad range of topics during the session.
Beautiful Efficiency: The Multifunctional Nature of Virus Proteins
Organizers: C. Michael Deom, University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Richard Nelson, The Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK
Sponsoring Committee/Sponsor: Virology Committee
Plant viruses have small genomes that generally encode for 4 to 10 proteins. They are masters at maximizing information in their small genomes. One approach plant viruses use to achieve this is to generate or modify multifunctional proteins. This can result from a gene evolving to encode a protein that interacts with multiple host proteins, resulting in multiple functions. The second is divergent evolution in closely related viruses resulting in a protein or protein domain having a different function. The session will look at multifunctional proteins in a diverse group of viruses. Understanding the complexity of multifunctional viral protein-host protein interactions will result in a better understanding of viral diseases and provide approaches to mitigate disease in the future.
Best Practices in Diagnostic Test Development and Deployment
Organizers: Kevin Ong, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, College Station, TX; Scott Heuchelin, DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Diagnostics Committee, Plant Protection and Disease Detection Committee, Seed Pathology Committee, Diseases of Ornamental Plants Committee
The focus of this session will be issues with diagnostic testing that arise from inadequate testing of the method, not extensive enough inclusivity or exclusivity testing with pathogen isolates, or poor deployment of a test or overextending what can be concluded from some available tests. Case studies of the kinds of problems that arise with misdiagnosis, efforts to standardize tests, and examples of how to create accurate repeatable assays will be featured. One of the main goals of this session will be to educate the future researchers we are developing on how to properly use or validate diagnostic tests so they can be used as intended by the worldwide audience that references their research. "Just because the assay you developed can detect your target pathogen of interest in your lab or testing scenario, does not mean it will work in other settings or world geographies."
Genomics-based Approaches Facilitate Diagnostic and Population Genetic Marker Development for Plant Pathogens
Organizers: Steve Klosterman, USDA ARS, Salinas, CA; Edwin Palencia, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; Erica Goss, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Jeff Coleman, Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics Committee, Diagnostics Committee
The increasing availability of whole-genome sequences, coupled with reduced costs of de novo genome sequencing, has paved the way to new approaches for the development of markers for genetic analyses and diagnostics for plant pathogens. This session explores recent bioinformatics and comparative approaches that have enabled the identification of nuclear or mitochondrial genomic loci used for genus and species-specific marker development. The bioinformatics pipelines developed for multiple genome sequence comparisons will guide future work to develop genetic markers, leading to their successful application in the field.
Labs, A Mechanism to Enhance Learning in the Changing World of Plant Pathology
Organizer: Brad Geary, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Teaching Committee, Mycology Committee, Undergraduate Committee, and Office of Education
Students with traditional lecture classes were 1.5 times more likely to fail than students with active learning—labs, and active learning increases student performance in STEM courses. A lab, for many, means an appropriately equipped room where students follow procedures and verify information. This is important, but it should also challenge students through the scientific method to formulate good questions, design investigative processes, and create defensible conclusions. Labs are rewarding for students and instructors; however, they pose challenges for instructors in resources/equipment, time, and upkeep. This session includes respected instructors explaining the benefits of labs, designing labs for biology and plant pathology courses, and online lab simulations. Information shared will benefit instructors who are just beginning a lab and seasoned instructors needing some fresh ideas.
New Insights into NLR on Plant Immunity: Pathogen Recognitions, Molecular Interactions, and Novel Disease Control Strategies
Organizers: Zhaohui Liu, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND; Yulin Jia, USDA ARS, Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center, Stuttgart, AR
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Molecular and Cellular Phytopathology Committee, Host Resistance Committee
Plants have intracellular nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) that detect specific pathogen effector and trigger immunity. In the last decade, great progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and biochemical function of plant NLRs. In particularly, recent research has shown that many plant NLRs work in pairs to recognize specific pathogen effector and trigger defense reactions in plant, which has been referred as integrated decoy model. Furthermore, the obtained knowledge has allowed scientists to design novel strategies for disease control through intelligently engineering plants. We propose a special session on plant NLRs by focusing on the new and groundbreaking discoveries. The session will start with an overview of our current understanding of NLRs in model species Arabidopsis and rice, followed by a couple of in-depth talks on specific disease systems in cereal, soybean, or other crops, and finally will provide exciting examples of using the obtained knowledge to engineer plant for disease control.
New Products and Services
Organizer: Neil Glynn, Syngenta, Vero Beach, FL
Section: Plant Disease Management
Check out the latest advances in the industry during presentations and discussion on new products, services, or equipment in plant pathology and related fields.
Phyllosphere Microbial Assemblages: Friends, Foes, and Strangers
Organizers: Robin Choudhury, University of California, Davis, CA; Steve Lindow, University of California, Berkeley, CA
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Phyllosphere Microbiology Committee, Bacteriology Committee
The microbial communities that inhabit the aboveground portions of plants help to determine the success or failure of plant pathogens. Using genomics tools, researchers are forming new ideas about how these communities form and interact amongst themselves. From microenvironmental effects through cryptic colonization, we are beginning to understand how these communities arise and spread. This special session brings together a diverse group of microbial ecologists, plant pathologists, and aerobiologists to help break down how these assemblages form and their effects on plant health and productivity.
Phytobiomes 2.0: Functional Approaches in Forest Ecosystems
Organizers: Denita Hadziabdic, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Knoxville, TN; Caterina Villari, University of Georgia, Athens, GA
Knowledge on phytobiome composition provides an understanding of microbial functions in diverse forest ecosystems. However, multi-disciplinary approaches are still needed for making availabe new concepts of phytobiome functions and how they affect complex communities. This includes how they influence forest health, productivity, and responses to pathogens and environmental stresses. Current advances in genomics, computational sciences, and system-level approaches are enabling insights for exploring complex interactions within phytobiomes. Such advances will enhance translation of this knowledge into the improvement of plant health.
Pursuit of Solutions to Mycotoxin Risks by Next-Generation Plant Pathologists
Organizers: Rebecca Sweany, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Won Bo Shim, Texas A&M University, College Station,TX
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Mycotoxicology Committee, Integrated Plant Disease Management Committee
Mycotoxin contamination of crops and commodities is endemic worldwide and poses risks to food security and food safety. In this special session, we will highlight innovative ideas and technologies being employed by the next generation of plant pathologists to develop effective and durable management strategies. This session will recruit speakers performing exciting research in biocontrol, genomics, phytobiome, molecular breeding, diagnostics, or IPM that address issues in crops affected by mycotoxin contamination. The session will end with a discussion in which the speakers will synthesize their recent ideas toward identifying future research directions and solutions.
Recruiting NextGen Scientists: Strategies for Inclusive Outreach
Organizers: Kimberly Gwinn, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Denita Hadziabdic, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Jose Pablo Dundore-Arias, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Committee for Diversity and Equality, Teaching Committee, Forest Pathology Committee
How many of you knew about plant pathology as middle or high school students? The objective of this session is to showcase programming aimed at engaging young students in plant pathology or related fields. According to AAUW, society tells girls and women that they don't belong in STEM, and at the every step of the education ladder more girls walk away. By combining engaging content, enthusiastic teachers, and STEM challenges, APS members are changing the environment for girls, minorities, and other students prone to walk away from science disciplines. In this session, speakers will focus on successful community outreach and education projects designed to increase awareness of plant pathology and other agriculture-related fields.
Re-emergence of Bacterial Blight of Cotton
Organizer: Libo Shan, Texas A&M University, Lubbock, TX, U.S.A.
Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum (Xcm), was a major disease of cotton in the United States until the mid-1970s. After that time, bacterial blight was suppressed by the widespread use of resistant cultivars and acid de-linting of planting seed. In 2011, the disease re-emerged in the Mid-South and has been observed over a greater area in the U.S. as well as internationally on an annual basis. We are conducting a coordinated research program to classify the field genotypes, detect the pathogen in planting seed, understand Xcm's pathogenic mechanisms, and elucidate the molecular genetics of host resistance in cotton. Our objective is to deploy an integrated management program and create new technologies for effective management of bacterial blight in cotton globally.
Show Me the Money! Assessing the Value of Disease Control in a Changing Landscape
Organizers: Robin Choudhury, University of California, Davis, CA; Kelsey Andersen, Monsanto, Chesterfield, MO
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Crop Loss Assessment and Risk Evaluation Committee, Epidemiology Committee
Grower adoption of cultural and chemical control strategies require that the programs effectively prevent disease and reduce the overall cost of production. While plant pathologists frequently assess the efficacy of different control programs, we rarely calculate the costs and benefits. Costs and benefits are often region and crop specific and can depend on both the market value of crops as well as wider fringe effects, such as social and environmental benefits. Despite these difficulties, demonstrating in dollar value the worth of our work is critical for obtaining federal and grower grants, as well as the long-term political sway of our society. Assessing economic effects of control programs and crop loss is important for both short-term tactics (e.g., fungicide programs) and long-term strategies (e.g., quarantine procedures, research and commercial priorities). This special session gathers diverse speakers who assess and demonstrate the costs and benefits of disease control tactics and strategies.
The Rise and Management Challenges of Multi-Fungicide-Resistant Pathogens
Organizers: Allysson Lunos, LSU AgCenter – SPESS, Baton Rouge, LA; Guido Schnabel, Clemson University, Clemson, SC; Jeffrey Stein, Monsanto, Chesterfield, MO; Jeffrey Standish, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Pathogen Resistance Committee, Chemical Control Committee
Financial Sponsor: Monsanto, Dow AgroSciences, BASF Corporation, Syngenta
Pesticide failure is an increasing problem in agriculture. Single action site fungicides are prone to resistance development, with resistance being widely reported in succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs), sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBIs), quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs), and others. Further thwarting disease management, several pathogens have developed resistance to multiple fungicides. Research on systems with quickly adapting pathogens and high pesticide exposure, such as Botrytis cinerea, Venturia inaequalis,or Alternaria species, can provide insight on the current problem and windows into solutions to protect our future yields. Environmental stewardship and sustainable production demand new strategies to replace increasing applications of pesticides and lengthen the useful life of existing and future fungicides.
The Socioeconomic Impact of New and Re-emerging Bacterial Diseases: A National Perspective
Organizers: Alejandra I. Huerta, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO; Jose Pablo Dundore-Arias, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN; Ana Cristian Fulladolsa, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Bacteriology Committee, Epidemiology Committee, Emerging Diseases and Pathogens Committee
Emerging and re-emerging plant diseases pose a threat to food production and human welfare. Emerging diseases are those that with time and conducive conditions might increase in importance. Re-emerging diseases are those that have been previously controlled but are once more a major threat. The impact of these diseases can significantly impact attainable crop yield, hinder international trade and sustainable production. This special session will discuss important diseases caused by bacteria pathogens
Translation of Basic Biological Control Research into Effective Grower Products and Practices
Organizer: Molly Cadle-Davidson, Advanced Biological Marketing, Inc., Geneva, NY
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: Biological Control Committee
Translation of basic biological control discoveries to farmer adoption requires consideration of the science and IP as well as consistent, effective, and safe delivery. In academia, development, large-scale microbial production, and support of on-farm products from research materials is rare, whereas in industry, development by acquisition is common. Both entities stumble when it comes to navigating the regulatory process and developing stable formulations. Process steps, alternative strategies, and visions for the future will be addressed.
Unfriendly and Beneficial Plant-Parasite Interactions
Organizers: Yulin Jia, USDA ARS, Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center, Stuttgart, AR; You-Liang Peng, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China; Guo-Liang Wang, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
Sponsoring Committees/Sponsors: APS-CSPP Working Group, Host Resistant Committee
Plants interact with a wide range of microorganisms with both detrimental and beneficial outcomes. The key for the survival of plants is their ability to recognize associated microorganisms and restrict their growth if they are pathogens or promote the association if they are symbionts. Use of host resistance is the most effective method to control pathogens. Similarly, wise utilization of beneficial microbes can prevent crop damage by harmful pathogens and also increase plant productivity. In the last decade, impressive progress has been made in understanding the interactions between host plants and pathogens at the molecular level. Recently, new insights have been obtained in understanding the symbiotic relationship between plants and microbes. In this session, researchers will present new scientific findings and discuss the common and contrast features in both types of interactions. We plan to invite seven speakers (four from CSPP and three from APS) selected based on gender, age, region, status of profession.
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