At present 75 species of Hypocrea have been identified in temperate Europe. Nineteen green-spored species and their Trichoderma asexual states are here described in detail. Extensive searches for Hypocrea teleomorphs in 14 European countries, with emphasis on Central Europe, yielded more than 620 specimens within five years.
Cultures were prepared from ascospores and used to study anamorph morphology, and to sequence three genetic markers. ITS was used for identification, while RNA polymerase II subunit b (rpb2) and translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) were analysed for phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus. Seventy-five species of Hypocrea, two species of Protocrea, and Arachnocrea stipata, are herein identified in temperate Europe.
Current data suggest that the biodiversity of Hypocrea / Trichoderma above soil exceeds the number of species isolated from soil. In Europe, 26 species of those forming teleomorphs produce hyaline conidia, while 42 green-conidial species are known. Specific associations, either with host fungi or trees have been found, but the majority of species seems to be necrotrophic on diverse fungi on wood and bark.
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