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In-depth understanding of the conditions under which pathogens, in particular parasitic fungi, live and develop is a prerequisite for effective crop protection. The DVD series The Biology of Fungal Pathogens grants easy access to this knowledge. Through an exciting blend of vivid three-dimensional animations and real images, with informative commentaries, these videos provide fascinating insight into the life cycles of major fungal pathogens. The series is an outstanding example of communication in modern science.
1.3 Powdery Mildew of Wheat (10:50 minutes)Erysiphe graminis, whose anamorph is Oidium monilioides, is the causal agent of powdery mildew of cereals. The life cycle of this obligate biotrophic parasite is depicted in exquisite 3D animations and macro images. The fungus survives host dormancy by forming fruiting bodies (cleistothecia) in which sexual ascospores mature. The video also explains the reasons for mildew’s high genetic adaptability to changing environmental conditions.
Winner of the 2004 COMENIUS Award Winner of the 2002 World Media Festival for the INTERMEDIA GLOBE GOLD in "Public Relations: Agriculture" Winner of the 20th International AGROFILM Festival for the First Prize "2003 Scientific and Popular Scientific Films" and Prize of the "National Jury"2.1 Leaf Rust and Other Rusts of Cereals (15:30) Using brown rust of wheat (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici) as an example, this movie depicts the complete life cycle of rust fungi with exhaustive detail. The production of the different spore types of rust fungi is shown using three-dimensional computer animations. Additionally, this film shows the life cycles of brown rust of rye (Puccinia recondita f. sp. recondita), stem rust of wheat (Puccinia graminis), leaf or brown dwarf rust of barley (Puccinia hordei), and yellow or stripe rust of wheat (Puccinia striiformis). 2.2 Fusarium Diseases of Wheat (10:50) Fungi of the genus Fusarium are of great economic importance worldwide because they cause crop losses and produce mycotoxins, which can cause severe toxicities if consumed by humans and livestock. This movie depicts the life cycles of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum using three-dimensional computer animations blended with real images. Particularly, the modes of infection as well as epidemiological spread of the disease are exhaustively shown. Because diseases caused by Fusarium fungi are difficult to control using fungicides, this movie also shows agronomical means for successful disease management in wheat production.
Winner of the 21st International AGROFILM Festival for the Prize "2004 Slovac Academy of Agricultural Sciences" (Best Scientific Film)3.1 Barley Leaf Spots – Fungal Disease or Stress Response? (14:00 min)Necrotic leaf spots on barley caused by abiotic or biotic factors have gained considerable importance in some regions where the crop is grown. This disease complex may significantly affect yield and represents a challenge both to proper diagnosis and disease management. A new biotic barley disease caused by the fungal pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni causes necrotic leaf spots. The video illustrates the life cycle of the pathogen and differentiates the disease symptoms and etiology from abiotic leaf spots, the so-called ‘physiological leaf spots’ (PLS). PLS are induced by a complex of environmental stress factors including, excess irradiation, drought, air pollutants, or extreme temperatures, which cause elevated levels of free unscavenged oxygen radicals in the leaf tissue. The video represents the sequence of events leading from generation of toxic oxygen radicals to induction of cell death and necrosis. Finally the impact of modern fungicides on this leaf spot complex is represented, with special emphasis on physiological fungicide effects on the plant. Although PLS/Ramularia appears less prevalent in North America as compared to Europe and Australia, this disease should not be overlooked. Because it is new and diagnostic expertise is scarce, the onset in North American barley regions may be similar to what's been seen in other regions of the world. Therefore, this video provides timely information to researchers, diagnosticians, and educators in the United States and Canada.
Winner of the 23rd International AGROFILM Festival for the First Prize "2006 Scientific and Popular Scientific Films" (Eyespot Disease of Small Grains) 4.1 Eyespot Disease of Small Grains (13:00 min)Where small grains are grown continuously and the climate is cool and moist, eyespot disease, also called strawbreaker foot rot, is a significant yield-limiting disease. This infection of the stem base is caused by fungi of the genus Helgardia (formerly Pseudocercosporella): Helgardia herpotrichoides (teleomorph Oculimacula yallundae) and Helgardia acuformis (teleomorph Oculimacula acuformis). Both species differ in terms of morphology and growth characteristics. This movie depicts the life cycles of both species using three-dimensional computer animations blended with real images. Particularly, the modes of infection as well as epidemiological spread of the disease are shown. Finally, methods for successful disease management are explained. 4.2 Bunt and Smut Diseases of Cereals (10:00 min)Common bunt of wheat caused by Tilletia caries and loose smut of barley caused by Ustilago nuda are cereal diseases that have been increasingly forgotten as a result of modern seed treatments. However, when untreated seed is used, infection by these damaging fungal pathogens can lead to substantial losses in yield and seed quality. Using Tilletia caries and Ustilago nuda as examples, this movie illustrates the life cycles of bunt and smut fungi with extensive detail, thus leading to a better understanding of the development and epidemiological spread of these fascinating fungi. All stages of the life cycles are explained using photolike three-dimensional computer animations, macro images, and real-image video sequences.
5.1 Pythium Root Rot of Cereals (10:00 min)Death of seedlings due to rotting of their roots is known as ‘damping-off’. This disease is usually cause by oomycetes in the genus Pythium, soilborne microorganisms related to brown algae. The circle of host plants parasitized by Pythium includes a wide variety of crops from virtually all climatic zones. By infecting germinating seeds and seedlings of all major grain crops, Pythium can cause significant losses in terms of quality and yield. Pythium root rot of cereals is so ubiquitous that it has been rightly called the ‘common cold’ of cereals. This movie depicts the life cycle of Pythium using 3D computer animations blended with real images. Particularly, the formation and spread of motile zoospores is shown in detail. Finally, methods for successful disease management are explained.
5.2 Rhizoctonia Root Rot of Cereals (9:00 min)The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a widespread inhabitant of soil. Hyphal anastomosis criteria are used to place isolates of Rhizoctonia solani into taxonomically distinct groups called ‘anastomosis groups’. Rhizoctonia solani strains classified in AG-8 are especially pathogenic to cereals, causing a root rot and stunting of wheat and barley plants, known as Rhizoctonia bare patch. The disease can be increased in direct-seed systems that lack tillage. The life cycle of Rhizoctonia solani is explained in clear, easy-to-understand 3D animations. The closely related fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis causing sharp eyespot of wheat is also described, followed by sequences focusing on disease management methods, including seed treatment.
Multilingual Soundtrack: English, French, German, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.
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Volume 1Volume 2Volume 3Volume 4
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