Listed alphabetically by section. Sessions are preliminary and subject to change.
Section: Biology of PathogensOrganizers: Lindsey du Toit, Washington State University, Mount Vernon, WA, U.S.A.; Gary Munkvold, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Seed PathologyFinancial Sponsors: ROGERS Brand Vegetable Seeds (Syngenta); BASF Corporation; Casiana (Nollie) M. Vera Cruz of International Rice Research Institute (personal donation); Eurofins STA Laboratories; Lindsey J. du Toit of Washington State University (personal donation)
This 10th symposium will feature four to six presentations on graduate student thesis work highlighting research aimed at providing a better understanding of the epidemiology, management, and phytosanitary issues of plant diseases caused by pathogens that are seedborne. All graduate students with relevant significant work are invited to apply. Eligible research topics in the broadest sense include research assessing seed infection, seed transmission, genetics of host-pathogen interactions of seedborne pathogens, management of seedborne pathogens (seed treatments and other practices), epidemiology of seedborne pathogens, phytosanitary and regulatory issues, and other basic and applied aspects of seedborne pathogens.
Presentations and speakers to be announced.
Section: Biology of PathogensOrganizers: Rodolfo Acosta-Leal, Texas AgriLife Research (Texas A&M University), Amarillo, TX, U.S.A.; William Schneider, USDA ARS Foreign Disease Weed Science Research Unit, Fort Detrick, MD, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: VirologyFinancial Sponsors: American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists; Beet Sugar Development Foundation; Samuel Robert Noble Foundation
As obligate parasites, viruses have evolved mechanisms to infect plants and undergo mutations and recombinations to adapt to new circumstances. A wide range of techniques and technologies have been used for developing an understanding of mechanisms of evolution in viruses with different genome organizations and replication strategies. A review of the current knowledge on processes associated with virus evolution and the influence of host plant, cropping methods, etc. on virus diversity and evolution is essential for sustainable crop improvement.
Section: Biology of PathogensOrganizer: Scot Hulbert, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Public Policy Board
This session will cover the outcomes of a Public Policy Board-sponsored workshop in the Washington, DC area in January or February. The speed in which microbial genome sequences are becoming available has created a need for better and more integrated databases and bioinformatic support for microbial researchers. The topic of the session will be the feasibility and mechanics of creating an integrated network for databases, analysis tools, and training in sequence analysis and utilization.
Section: Biology of PathogensOrganizers: Z. Gloria Abad, USDA-APHIS-PPQ-PHP-RIPPS-Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, U.S.A.; Kelly Ivors, North Carolina State University, Mills River, NC, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Mycology; Forest PathologyFinancial Sponsor: Widely Prevalent Plant Pathogenic Fungi List Project
Although Phytophthora, Pythium, and the downy mildews are among the most studied organisms in systematics, there is still a great deal of confusion in recognizing valid species and new genera. Poorly annotated sequences exist in GenBank, making it impossible to identify some of the clusters for extypes or neotypes and consequently, the proper identity of an isolate. Examples of these complexes include Phytophthora capsici, Phytophthora citricola, Phytophthora drechsleri, Phytophthora megasperma, Pythium irregulare, prov. genus name Phytopythium vexans, and Py. helicoides. Although morphological and molecular characterization is used for describing new species, some have recently been found invalid. Establishing proper nomenclature provides a solid foundation for research tied to the species and for associated regulatory and disease control decisions. Experts in systematics, evolution, and population genetics will participate in this session, hopefully stimulating collaboration for addressing these major challenges in oomycete systematics.
Section: Biology of PathogensOrganizers: Timothy Friesen, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND, U.S.A.; Shaobin Zhong, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Genetics
Necrotrophic plant pathogens have long been thought to be less sophisticated than the well-studied biotrophs in their interactions with their corresponding hosts. Recent exciting research in the area of necrotrophic plant pathogen interactions has shown that the necrotrophic pathogen interactions may be just as sophisticated in their attack on their respective hosts. Speakers in this session will present research in the area of necrotrophic plant pathogen interactions from both the host and pathogen perspectives. This session will look specifically at virulence/pathogenicity of necrotrophic plant pathogens as well as at the host response to effectors involved in this interaction.
Section: Diseases of PlantsOrganizer: James Kerns, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Turfgrass Pathology
Rhizoctonia diseases have a long history in the culture of turfgrasses. Recently, our understanding of the known Rhizoctonia species as well as of the new, emerging Rhizoctonia-like diseases has necessitated research to develop an organizational concept that remains faithful to the older taxonomic categories while recognizing newer developments in molecular systematics. This session will include an overview of past and current Rhizoctonia systematics and research updates on new and diverse Rhizoctonia diseases on cool- and warm-season turfgrasses.
Section: Diseases of PlantsOrganizers: Carla Garzon, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, U.S.A.; Jerry Weiland, USDA-ARS- Horticultural Crops Research Lab, Corvallis, OR, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Soil Microbiology and Root Diseases; Diagnostics; Chemical Control; Mycology
This session will provide updates on the current knowledge about Pythium phylogenetics, population genetics and diversity, sampling, diagnostics, disease management, and economic impact.
Section: Diseases of PlantsOrganizer: Lyndon Porter, USDA-ARS, Prosser, WA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Early Career Professionals; Virology
This session is designed to acknowledge the “up-and-comers” in the virology discipline of plant pathology. The speakers will present their current research and speculate on the future direction of their discipline in this special session.
Section: Diseases of PlantsOrganizers: John Hammond, USDA-ARS, Molecular Plant Pathology Lab, Beltsville, MD, U.S.A.; William Schneider, USDA ARS, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, U.S.A.; Maher Alrwahnih, University of California, Davis, CA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: VirologyFinancial Sponsors: APS-APHIS Virus Working Group; Noble Foundation
The list of viruses infecting plants is growing. There are many viruses that are not identified and characterized. Use of microarrays and next generation sequencing techniques are offering unprecedented opportunities to identify viruses, find new viruses, and examine virus populations. This session will bring experts together to share current knowledge on these topics and on how the new technologies are revolutionizing plant virology.
Section: Epidemiology/Ecology/Environmental BiologyOrganizers: Jeri Barak, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, U.S.A.; Jacque Fletcher, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: APS Food Safety Interest Group; Public Policy Board
Building upon a 2007 APS Symposium on Human Pathogens on Plants, this session will address a breadth of practical issues to assist plant pathologists embarking on the study of human pathogens in fresh produce and to inform APS members on the progress of the APS Public Policy Board (PPB) on their work to establish a national, interagency initiative to target new funding streams for research. Speakers from FDA and from USDA food safety programs will identify agency priorities and opportunities. Other presentations will focus on navigating the regulatory requirements for human pathogen research, safe and responsible handling of human pathogens, and growers’ perceptions and practices with respect to assuring the safety of their products. A final speaker will provide an update on the PPB food safety initiative.
Section: Epidemiology/Ecology/Environmental BiologyOrganizer: Serge Savary, IRRI, Manila, PhilippinesSponsoring Committees: Crop Loss Assessment and Risk Evaluation; Epidemiology
The past few months have seen extraordinary constraints and pressures on global food markets, with dramatic regional and local consequences on food security and societal stability. Although the situation has eased some, the primary causes for such instability remain unresolved. This special session will focus on research that is underway or should be undertaken to address food security in major human food staples, such as rice, wheat, maize, potato, sorghum, and cassava. Presentations will be given that provide timely information on (i) the importance of plant diseases on global crop productivity; (ii) approaches to prioritizing research efforts; (iii) assessments of constraints and opportunities for new technologies; and (iv) research progress that is contributing to greater food security. Global change due to climate, credit availability, and diminishing natural resources will be presented in context of their measured or predicted impact on food security. Speakers will include experts from world agricultural organizations in the eastern and western hemispheres, and a specialized FAO economist also will be sought.
Section: Epidemiology/Ecology/Environmental BiologyOrganizers: Niklaus Grunwald, USDA ARS, Corvallis, OR, U.S.A.; Erica Goss, USDA ARS, Corvallis, OR, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Genetics
Plant pathogens have been recognized as threats to U.S. biosecurity in regard to agricultural crops and natural resources. Population genetics has played an important role in recent years in the detection and monitoring of emerging or re-emerging pathogens, elucidating the source of global migrations of pathogens, and in the assessment of future risk from pathogens. This session will highlight the contributions of population genetics to plant pathogen biosecurity.
Section: Molecular/Cellular/Plant-Microbe InteractionsOrganizers: Dennis Halterman, USDA ARS, Madison, WI, U.S.A.; Roger Wise, USDA ARS, Ames, IA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Molecular and Cellular Phytopathology; Host ResistanceFinancial Sponsor: Syngenta
Relatively recent advances have been made in determining the molecular basis of broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants. Multiple levels of host responses to pathogen-derived molecules provide distinct sources and mechanisms of broad-spectrum resistance. Pathogen recognition receptors perceive conserved microbial molecular patterns to elicit basal defense responses, while resistance genes recognize the presence of pathogen effectors that may be essential for virulence. In this session, we will explore the molecular interface between hosts and pathogens and specifically focus on traits that result in host resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogen strains or types.
Section: Molecular/Cellular/Plant-Microbe InteractionsOrganizer: Brian McSpadden Gardener, The Ohio State University, OARDC, Wooster, OH, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Biological Control; Soil Microbiology
Much early work went into the discovery of key mechanisms of biocontrol by bacteria, particularly antibiotics. However, it has become increasingly clear that multiple chemical signals produced by bacteria impact plant health. Also, genomic and ecological studies have shown that some of the most effective individual strains express multiple traits that lead to a robust plant-health-promoting phenotype. This session will cover recent research on the diverse mechanisms by which biocontrol bacteria are now known to promote crop health and suppress plant diseases. After discussing the individual mechanisms under study, the panel of speakers will convene to discuss how and why such mechanisms might be coordinated or integrated in natural systems.
Section: Molecular/Cellular/Plant-Microbe InteractionsOrganizers: Frank White, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, U.S.A.; Adam Bogdanove, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Bacteriology
This session will discuss the structure, function, and diversity of TAL effector proteins of Xanthomonas. Targets of these type III-secreted transcription factors in a wide range of host species will also be presented with a focus on the biological consequences of TAL effector-mediated host transcriptional reprogramming for disease and disease resistance. Insights into TAL effector specificity and applications of TAL effectors in research and biotechnology will be presented and discussed.
Section: Molecular/Cellular/Plant-Microbe InteractionsOrganizers: Srinivasa Rao Uppalapati, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK, U.S.A.; Tom Mitchell, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Molecular and Cellular Phytopathology
This session will focus on host- and/or pathogen-derived small molecules that regulate microbial pathogenesis, disease development processes, and signaling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of pathogens. The session will also address emerging paradigms, newly identified small molecules that could provide novel ways to control diseases by either priming plant immunity or interfering with effector secretion systems.
Section: Plant Disease ManagementOrganizers: Brian Olson, Dow AgroSciences, Geneva, NY, U.S.A.; Roger Kaiser, Valent BioSciences Corp., Libertyville, IL, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Industry; Extension
In early July 2009, tomato plants infected with late blight were being sold by the “big box” stores up and down the East Coast, creating a late blight epidemic. This session will examine how the crisis began; the impact on commercial tomato growers; how regulators from different states reacted to the situation; how the nursery industry production system works with the “big box” retail stores; the science of the epidemic; and the APS Extension Committee’s task force report and recommendations on the crisis.
Section: Plant Disease ManagementOrganizer: Mark Weaver, USDA ARS, Stoneville, MS, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Biological Control; Biotechnology
This session will bring together researchers who have successfully translated research findings into applications with a positive impact for society through the biocontrol of plant diseases and invasive weeds. Together, we hope to compile some of the lessons learned and to direct ongoing research around some of the pitfalls on the path between bench science and successful, applied biological control.
Section: Plant Disease ManagementOrganizer: Chang-Lin Xiao, Washington State University, Wenatchee, WA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Postharvest Pathology; Pathogen ResistanceFinancial Sponsors: PACE Intl.; Janssen PMP; Syngenta Crop ProtectionSeveral new pre- and postharvest fungicides have recently entered the market. This session will focus on the key drivers for the development of fungicide resistance in the pre- and postharvest crop production systems and establish the views on pre- and postharvest integrated approaches to the sustainable management of fungicide resistance in postharvest pathogens as seen by the fungicide-resistance research community and the companies that are developing these new products. A dynamic panel of speakers has been identified to address this exciting topic. The collaborative output from this session is anticipated to help establish a standard foundation for resistance management recommendations for newly introduced pre- and postharvest fungicides that are used for postharvest disease control.
Section: Plant Disease ManagementOrganizers: Mo-Mei Chen, University of California, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A.; Barry Pryor, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Mycology; Forest Pathology; ExtensionThis special session will provide an overview on the diversity of edible and medicinal mushrooms and on the state-of-the-art in the commercial production of gourmet and specialty fungi, highlighting the economic impact of this emerging agricultural product. Additional emphasis will be on modern disease management strategies employed in large-scale production facilities.
Section: Plant Disease ManagementOrganizers: Kimberly Webb, USDA-ARS, Fort Collins, CO, U.S.A.; Alemu Mengistu, USDA-ARS, Jackson, TN, U.S.A.; Zhi-Yuan Chen, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Host Resistance; Molecular and Cellular PhytopathologyThis session will apply current technologies for identification of multi-trait, broad-spectrum resistance for use in today’s public and private breeding programs. Discussion on how effective the use of quanitative trait loci (QTL), DNA expression profiles, and proteomics have been in devolving new public and private breeding programs and their utility in incorporating novel sources of disease resistance into traditional breeding programs.
Section: Plant Disease ManagementOrganizer: Barry Jacobsen, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Biological Control; IPMThis session will focus on host plant resistance induced by bacteria, fungi, and chemicals.
Section: Plant Disease ManagementOrganizer: Alex Cochran, Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committees: Chemical Control; Public Policy Board; Pathogen Resistance; BacteriologyFinancial Sponsor: ArystaLifeScienceKasugamycin is due to be registered in the United States in 2010. Concerns about risks for antibiotic resistance of human pathogens will be discussed along with benefits for controlling bacterial diseases of various crops. Topics to be discussed will be efficacy, impacts for food safety, EPA/FDA concerns, global regulatory concerns/hurdles, and reviewing current needs after a lengthy drought of antibiotic registrations.
Section: Plant Disease ManagementOrganizers: Courtney Gallup, Dow AgroSciences, Davenport, IA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Industry
This session will provide a forum for highlighting new products and services that are in the pipeline or are now offered to growers and researchers to aid in managing or understanding plant diseases.
Section: Plant Disease ManagementOrganizers: William L. MacDonald, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, U.S.A.; Pauline O. Spaine, USDA Forest Service, Athens, GA, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Forest Pathology
Numerous North American forest ecosystems have been severely impacted by nonnative invasive pathogens. Although the long-term damage that has resulted is recalcitrant to recovery, progress is being made to restore some impacted ecosystems. Several examples of restorations that are ongoing will be presented.
Section: Professionalism/OutreachOrganizer: Jacque Fletcher, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, U.S.A.Sponsoring Committee: Public Policy Board
This session will provide updates and opportunities for APS member input on high-priority APS public policy initiatives. These include strategies for the establishment of a National Plant Microbial Germplasm System, progress on the APS effort to shape the future of education in plant pathology, issues related to plant pathogen regulatory issues and permitting, and future initiatives in the genomics of plant-associated microbes. The session will finish with presentations by the APS-OSTP fellow and the Public Policy Board early career intern, both of whom will speak about their experiences and accomplishments working on public policy issues. A final discussion period will allow APS members to ask questions, provide input on the Public Policy Board activities, and volunteer to work on ongoing projects.
Section: Professionalism/OutreachOrganizers: Heather Olson, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, U.S.A.; Kestrel Lannon, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, U.S.A.; Alan Chambers, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, U.S.A.; Patricia Wallace, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, U.S.A. Sponsoring Committees: Graduate Student; Extension
This session will be the second in the series started during the 2009 APS Annual Meeting exploring career opportunities in various sectors of plant pathology. This year, the session will inform graduate students about career possibilities in extension plant pathology. The session will explore the spectrum of careers available at both the masters and doctorate levels of education. Invited speakers will share personal experiences, as well as provide insight on how to obtain and develop a successful career in extension services.